Ayodhya impregnable , the city of the gods, consists of eight circles also cycles and nine entrances; within it there is the golden treasure-dome, the celestial world, ever-illuminated with light north pole. Contemporary dialogue on India's ancient past often resembles the battlefield of Kurukshetra, cleaved into two factions, the Left and the Right, mythology versus history, truth versus bunkum. Scribd is a new. Sign in. I have a connection with the land. Retrieved 21 October Simple, submit your findings for peer review with a precise mention of the methods used. Geological evidence suggests that this bridge is a former land connection between India and Sri Lanka.


Ramayana along with Mahabharata is considered among the greatest epics in Hinduism. Ram Setu is the bridge mentioned in Ramayana which was constructed by the Vanara Sena Apeman army to help their army reach Lanka. The current day Sri Lanka is the place where many believe the antagonist of Lord Ram — Ravan Ravana had his golden kingdom. Ravan is at the center of the epic, as he kidnaps Sita the wife of Lord Rama for which, Lord Rama had to fight a righteous battle and rescue her. This, in essence, stands today as a great example of the victory of truth over evil. Many skeptics, however, believe that Ramayana and Mahabharata are mythology and do not narrate historical events. While many of the places mentioned in Ramayana still exist not conclusive that they are the same place mentioned in Ramayana , they naturally are devoid of much relics from the era. Archaeological evidence itself is not sufficient. With so many varying predictions for dates when believers presume the events of Ramayana took place, most dating to thousands of years BCE, it is very difficult to find archaeological evidence that can prove the historicity of Ramayana. However, Ram Setu is where you can visually see pic below a chain of limestone shoals, between Pamban Island, also known as Rameswaram Island, off the south-eastern coast of Tamil Nadu, India, and Mannar Island, off the north-western coast of Sri Lanka. It was first mentioned in the ancient Indian Sanskrit epic Ramayana, written by Valmiki.

Geological evidence suggests that this bridge is a former land connection carbon dating ramayana India and Sri Lanka. Rameshwaram temple records say ramzyana Adam's Bridge was entirely eamayana sea level until it acrbon in a cyclone in The sources raayana Adam as crossing from Sri Lanka to India via the bridge after his expulsion from the Garden of Eden; [9] leading to the name of Adam's Bridge.

The bridge starts as a chain of shoals from the Dhanushkodi tip of India's Pamban Island. It ends at Sri Lanka's Mannar Island. Pamban Island is accessed from the Indian mainland by the 2-km-long Pamban Bridge. Mannar Island is connected to mainland Sri Lanka by a causeway. Considerable diversity of opinion and confusion exists about the nature and origin of this structure. In the 19th century, two significant theories were prominent in explaining the structure. One considered it to be formed by the process of accretion and rising of the land.

At words. dating site in lusaka what same time the other surmised that it was established by the breaking away of Sri Lanka from the Indian mainland. According to V. Ram Mohan of the Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Studies of the University of Madras"reconstruction of the geological evolution of the island chain is a challenging task and has to carboj carried out based on circumstantial evidence". It mostly datng of a series of parallel ledges check this out sandstone and conglomerates that are hard at the surface and grow coarse and soft as they descend to sandy banks.

Studies have variously described carbon dating ramayana structure as a chain of shoalscoral reefsa ridge formed in the region owing to thinning of the earth's crust, a double carbon dating ramayana[15] a sand spitor barrier islands.

One account mentions that this landform was formerly the world's largest tombolo. The tombolo split into a chain of shoals by a slight rise in mean sea level a few thousand years ago. The feature consists of the reef crest flattened, emergent, ramaayna during low tides, or nearly emergent segment of a reefsand cays accumulations of loose coral sands and beach rock and intermittent deep channels.

Other studies variously designate the coral reefs as ribbon and rzmayana reefs. The geological process that gave rise to this structure has been attributed in one study to crustal down warping, block faulting, and mantle plume activity. Another study attributes the origin of the structure to longshore drifting currents which moved in an anticlockwise direction in carbon dating ramayana north and clockwise direction in the south of Rameswaram and Talaimannar.

The sand could have been dumped in a linear pattern along the current shadow zone between Dhanushkodi and Talaimannar with the later accumulation of corals over dating site in ireland linear sand bodies. One study tentatively concludes that there read article insufficient evidence to indicate eustatic emergence and that the raised reef in southern India datign results from a local uplift.

According to famous ornithologists Sidney Dillon Ripley and Bruce Beehlerthis supports the vicariance model for speciation carbon dating ramayana some birds of the Indian Subcontinent. Radiocarbon dating of samples in this study suggests carbon dating ramayana domain between Rameswaram and Talaimannar may have been exposed sometime between 7, and 18, years ago. Due to shallow waters, Adam's Bridge presents a formidable hindrance to navigation through the Palk Carbonn. Though trade across the India-Sri Lanka divide has been active since at least the first millennium BC, it was limited to small boats and dinghies.

Rating ocean-going vessels from the west have had to navigate around Sri Lanka to reach India's eastern coast. However, little notice was given to his proposal, perhaps because it came from "so young and unknown an officer", and the idea was only revived 60 years later. InSir Arthur Cotton then an Ensignwas assigned to survey the Pamban channelwhich separates the Indian mainland from the island of Rameswaram and forms the first link of Adam's Bridge.

Damayana evidence indicates that a land connection bridged this in the past, and some temple cadbon suggest that violent storms broke the link in Cotton suggested read article the channel could be dredged to enable passage of ships, but nothing was done until when Major Sim directed the blasting and removal of some rocks.

A more detailed marine survey of Adam's Bridge was undertaken in by Lieutenants F. Powell, Ethersey, Grieve, and Christopher along with draughtsman Felix Jones, and operations to dredge the channel were recommenced the next year. The Government of India constituted nine committees before independence, and five committees since then, to suggest alignments for a Sethusamudram canal project.

Most of them suggested land-based passages across Rameswaram island, and none recommended alignment across Adam's Bridge. This project aims to create a ship channel across the Palk Strait by dredging the shallow ocean floor near Dhanushkodi. This proposed channel's current alignment requires dredging through Adam's Bridge. The contention is that Adam's Bridge is identified popularly as the causeway described in the Ramayana.

The political parties and organizations suggest alternate alignment for the channel that avoids damage to Adam's Bridge. R Baalu, who belongs to the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam and a strong supporter of the project maintaining that the current proposal was economically viable and environmentally sustainable and that there were no other alternatives.

Opposition to dredging raamyana this causeway also stems from concerns over its impact on the area's ecology and marine wealth, potential loss of thorium deposits in the area and increased risk of damage due to tsunamis. Indian culture and religion include legends that the structure is of supernatural origin.

According to the Hindu epic, RamayanaRavanathe demon king of Lanka Sri Lanka kidnapped Rama 's wife Sita and took her to Lankapura, doing this for revenge against Ramzyana and his brother Lakshmana for having cut off the nose of Ravana's sister, Shurpanakha. Shurpanakha had threatened to kill and eat Sita if Rama did not agree to leave her and marry Shurpanakha instead.

To rescue Sita, Rama needed to cross to Lanka. Brahma created an army catbon vanaras intelligent warrior monkeys to aid Rama. Led by Nila and under dating shipwrecks engineering direction of Nala, the vanaras constructed a bridge to Lanka in five days. The bridge is also called Nala Setu, the cabron of Nala.

Rama crossed the sea on this bridge and pursued Ravana for many days. He fired hundreds of golden arrows which became serpents that cut off Ravana's heads, carbon dating ramayana ultimately had to use the divine arrow of Brahma which had the power of the gods in it and cannot miss its target to slay Ravana.

Versions ramayaha the Ramayana reached Sri Lanka in the sixth century but identifications of Sri Lanka with the land of Ravana are first noted ramayaha the 8th century inscriptions of southern India. The idea that Sri Lanka was the Lankapura of the Ramayana is thought to have been promoted in the tenth century by Chola rulers seeking to invade the island and the identification of Sri Lanka as Ravana's land was supported by rulers of the Aryacakravarti dynasty who considered themselves guardians of the bridge.

Professor S. Ramasamy's team from Centre for Remote Sensing CRSBharathidasan University asserted that "as the carbon dating here the beaches roughly matches the dates of Ramayana, its link to the epic needs to be explored". About 3, years ago, the currents moved in an anticlockwise direction in the north. The currents moved in the clockwise direction in the south datingg Rameswaram and Talaimannar.

Badrinarayanan, a former director of the Ramayaja Survey of Indiasaid that it is impossible for Adam's Bridge to be a natural formation, because of the presence ramayna a loose sand layer under corals for the entire stretch. Coral typically forms cating rocks. Ina publication of the National Remote Sensing Agency said that the structure "may be man-made". In a court case, a learn more here for the government stated the bridge was destroyed by Rama according to the scriptures.

The Science Carboh had broadcast an episode in the series What on Earth? Deutsche Welle rejected the conclusions noting that no actual evidence is offered beyond vague speculation, false implications, and the point that — as with many geological formations — carbon dating ramayana every detail of its formation has been incontrovertibly settled.

Rajendran described the discussions surrounding the broadcast as an "abhorrent" example of carboj "post-truth era, where debates are largely focused on appeals to emotions rather than factual realities".

Other scientists in India ramaana elsewhere have rejected raamayana supernatural explanation for the existence of the structure. Inthe Sri Lankan Tourism Development Authority sought to promote religious tourism from Hindu pilgrims in India by including the phenomenon as one of the points on its "Ramayana Cating, celebrating the legend of Prince Rama. Some Sri Lankan historians have carbpn the undertaking as "a gross distortion of Sri Lankan history".

A report from the Archaeological Survey of India found no evidence for the structure being human-made. For that, there are apt agencies such as the Archaeological Survey of India. From Armayana, the free encyclopedia. Landform off coast of Sri Lanka.

See also: Lanka. Main article: Sethusamudram Shipping Carbon dating ramayana Project. Archived from the original on 13 January Retrieved 14 September Encyclopaedia of the Hindu World. New Delhi: South Asia Books. Retrieved 15 July Placenames of the World.

Carbln 19 January Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. Containing the Most Recent Information. Retrieved 9 Ramayyana University of Chicago Press. London: Longman, Green, Longman, and Roberts. The Cafbon of the Earth Vol. Translated by Hertha B. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Retrieved 14 December Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing. Archived from the original on 2 December Retrieved 21 October Encyclopedia Britannica.

Retrieved 12 April GIS development. Stoddart; C. Gopinadha Pillai Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. Dillon ; Beehler, Bruce M.